Black holes are scary for three reasons. If you fall into a black hole that remains when a star dies, it will be torn apart. The massive black holes we see at the center of all galaxies have an insatiable appetite. Black holes are places where the laws of physics are obscured.
Black holes are expected to form when a massive star dies. After the star’s nuclear fuel is exhausted, its core collapses into the densest state of matter imaginable, a hundred times denser than the nucleus of an atom. This is so dense that protons, neutrons, and electrons are no longer separate particles. Because black holes are dark, they are found when they are revolve around an ordinary star
. The properties of a normal star allow astronomers to deduce the properties of its dark companion, the black hole.
It was the first confirmed black hole Cygnus X-1
, the brightest X-ray source in the constellation Cygnus. Since then, about 50 black holes have been discovered in systems where an ordinary star orbits a black hole. They are the closest examples of 10 million are expected to be missing in the Milky Way
Black holes are graveyards of matter. Nothing can escape it, not even light. The fate of anyone falling into a ‘spagitation’ black hole will be painful, an idea promoted by Stephen Hawking in his bookInformation about the date and time
. “In spaghetti, the black hole’s intense gravity will disintegrate, separating bones, muscles, tendons, and even molecules. As the poet Dante described the words above the gates of hell in his poem “The Divine Comedy”: Please, everyone who enters here.”
A hungry monster in every galaxy
Over the past 30 years, observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope have shown that All galaxies have black holes in the center
. Larger galaxies contain larger black holes.
Nature knows how to create black holes on an astonishing range of masses, from stellar corpses a few times the mass of the Sun to monsters tens of billions of times. It is like the difference between an apple and the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Just last year, astronomers released a file The first image of a black hole
And the event horizon, a 7 billion solar-mass monster at the center of elliptical galaxy M87.
It is more than a thousand times larger than the black hole of our galaxy, and its discoverers were awarded this year’s Nobel Prize. These black holes are dark most of the time, but when their gravity attracts nearby stars and gases, they erupt in intense activity and pump out a massive amount of radiation. Supermassive black holes are dangerous in two respects. If you get too close, pure gravity will pull you inward. And if it is in the active quasar phase, it will be exposed to high-energy radiation.
How bright is the quasar? Imagine that you are hanging over a large city like Los Angeles at night. Nearly 100 million lights from cars, homes, and city streets correspond to the stars of the galaxy. In this analogy, a black hole in its active state is like a one-inch light source in downtown Los Angeles, which obscures the city by a factor of hundreds or thousands. Quasars are the brightest things in the universe.
Supermassive black holes are weird
The The largest black hole ever discovered
It weighs 40 billion times the mass of the Sun, or 20 times the size of the Solar System. While the outer planets orbit our solar system once every 250 years, this most massive object orbits once every three months. Its outer tip moves at half the speed of light. Like all black holes, massive holes are protected from view event horizon
. in their positions A singularity is a point in space at which density is infinite
. We can’t understand what’s inside a black hole because the laws of physics are broken. Time freezes on the event horizon and gravity becomes infinite at the singularity.
The good news about massive black holes is that you can survive by falling into a single hole. Although its gravity is stronger, the expansion force is weaker than that of a small black hole and it won’t kill you. The bad news is that the event horizon marks the edge of a cliff. Nothing can escape the event horizon, so you can’t escape or report your experience.
According to Stephen Hawking, black holes exist slowly evaporates
. In the distant future of the universe, long after all the stars have died and galaxies are hidden by the accelerating cosmic expansion, black holes will be the last things left alive.
It will take the most dense black holes An unimaginable number of years to evaporate
, estimated to 10 to the hundredths, or 10 followed by 100 zeros. The scariest things in the universe are almost eternal.