One at the provincial level and the other at the national level. Determining places and methods to ensure the continuity of government work, protect the country’s economic, production and logistical capacity on the one hand, and reduce the impact of crisis events on the population on the other hand. Indicate specific countermeasures to reduce the effects of a potential attack, similar to those applicable in the event of a nuclear accident.
and the National Civil Defense Plan – containing preventive strategies and plans aimed at rescue, even within complex scenarios – to identify threats, identify possible scenarios and develop measures to be adopted in the event of a nuclear attack. The plan represents the general direction for the formulation of plans prepared by the public and private administrations providing essential services, as well as the counties drawn up by the governors.
The tables are subject to periodic exercises in order to test their operational functions and the last update will go back to January 2021. Article 14 of Legislative Decree 300 issued in July 1999 assigns jurisdiction to the Ministry of the Interior and the governorates they exercise through the Fire Department, Public Rescue and Civil Defense and to ensure coordination with state departments the work of the committee is done Ministerial Technical for Civil Defense (Citdc).
With regard to the threats considered, the first distinction to be made relates to the types of scenarios and the number of people who could be involved: Ranging from a terrorist attack with chemical, bacteriological, radiological or nuclear materials to a war scenario that, in effect, includes an atomic bomb attack. In particular, scenarios characterizing danger N (nuclear attack) and R (radioactive attack) range from exposure to a radioactive source – for example releasing a radioactive substance in a crowded place such as a subway car, a stadium or a shopping mall, to the use of a so-called “bomb.” Dirty” (a radioactive source associated with a classical explosive type), even the worst-case scenario is characterized by the use of atomic bombs, even small ones, which increase the effect of ionizing radiation on the post-explosion excess pressures as well as heat as a combustion effect. These recent events can affect a large number of people.
For each conceivable scenario, there is district-level planning with indication of sensitive sites or even so-called “critical infrastructures” that need to be monitored (waste deposits, military bases and civilian objects, such as hospitals, which could become the target of attack). It is not only about identifying sensitive points, but also includes cartographic referral of sensitive points, road signs to be ensured, zoning for any tent towns and mobile rescue structures. The local layout also contains a list of deposits of materials useful for event management (deposits of medicine, fuel and food).
But what countermeasures can be adopted to ensure the safety of the population in the event of an attack? They are essentially the same as those provided by plans in a radiological and nuclear emergency: the use of stable iodine, to ensure that the radioactive iodine does not stick to the thyroid gland, and shelter indoors, i.e. the duty to stay at home. With doors and windows closed so that polluted air is not breathed. On the other hand, if the radioactivity values are very high, it is expected that the population will be removed with well-defined protocols. Added to this are some precautionary measures that can also be adopted in case the bomb explodes in areas close to Italy: measuring radiation levels in the air, water and even in food, to determine the level of contamination and to identify interventions, such as a ban on the purchase and sale of certain products.
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